Real Estate

Montenegro: Construction Licence under Montenegrin Law

Is it possible to circumvent the requirement of a construction licence by subcontracting all the work?

Competence of a company for construction

Pursuant to the Montenegrin Spatial Planning and Construction of Facilities Act (Zakon o uređenju prostora i izgradnji objekata) (the “Act”), a company or an equivalent entity (“Company”), must possess a construction licence (“Licence”) in order to perform construction works.

Nevertheless, the number of companies licensed to carry out all construction works necessary for construction of a building entirely by themselves is limited. Most are licensed only for certain construction works. These companies are entitled to enter into a construction contract with an employer for performance of construction works (“Agreement”) as a contractor and to subcontract the work that they are not licensed to perform to other licensed companies.

Controversy

There is controversy, however, about whether a non-licensed company, as a contractor, may enter into an Agreement with an employer and then subcontract all the work to a subcontractor in order to circumvent the requirement of a construction licence. It can be argued that the basis for determining this is the factual performance of the work; in other words, that only a company actually performing the work requires a licence.

Nevertheless, relevant court rulings dictate that a non-licensed company is not entitled to enter into the Agreement, since what is relevant is which company entered into the Agreement, and not which one performed the construction works: “The Council finds erroneous application of the substantive act when it is stated that the party that actually performed the construction works was relevant, and not the party that concluded the agreement in terms of which it was obligated to carry out the construction” (in the context).

Moreover, relevant court practice dictates that “an agreement with the subcontractor can be entered into merely for certain construction phases and not for the entirety of the works, which means that (Nomen nescio) was obligated to possess the licence as proof that it met the conditions for performance of its business activity”.

Otherwise, a situation where a company registered for a completely different line of business enters an Agreement as a contractor and subcontracts all the works under the Agreement, would be possible.

It is not advisable to circumvent the requirement of a construction licence by subcontracting all the work. Only companies licensed for performance of construction works can, in their capacity as a contractor, enter into an Agreement. Companies entering into an Agreement in the capacity of a contractor may subcontract only certain phases of the construction works and not the entirety of the works.

Građevinska licenca prema crnogorskom pravu

Da li je moguće izbeći dobijanje građevinske licence subordiniranjem svih radova?

Sposobnost kompanije za izgradnju

Prema crnogorskom Zakonu o uređenju prostora i izgradnji objekata (Montenegrin Spatial Planning and Construction of Facilities Act) (“Zakon”), privredno društvo, pravno lice ili preduzetnik (“Kompanija”), mora posedovati građevinsku licencu (“Licenca”) da bi moglo da obavlja građevinske radove.

Ipak, broj Kompanija licenciranih za samostalno izvođenje svih građevinskih radova neophodnih za izgradnju objekata je ograničen. Većina je licencirana za izvođenje samo određenih građevinskih radova. Ove Kompanije imaju pravo da u svojstvu izvođača zaključe sa investitorom ugovor o izvođenju građevinskih radova (“Ugovor”), te one radove, za koje nisu licencirane da izvode, daju u podizvođenje drugim licenciranim Kompanijama.

Kontroverza

Međutim, pitanje je da li nelicencirana Kompanija može, u svojstvu izvođača, zaključiti Ugovor sa investitorom, a zatim, radi izbegavanja obaveze dobijanja građevinske licence, dati u podizvođenje sve građevinske radove. Može se raspravljati da je osnov za određivanje pomenutog faktičko izvođenje radova, to jest da samo kompanija koja faktički izvodi radove mora posedovati Licencu.

Ipak, relevantna sudska praksa zauzima stav da nelicencirane Kompanije ne mogu da zaključe Ugovor, jer je za to od značaja činjenica ko zaključuje Ugovor, a ne ko faktički izvodi radove: “Vijeće nalazi da je pogrešno primijenjen materijalni zakon kada je navedeno da je bitno ko je faktički izvodio radove, a ne ko je zaključio ugovor kojim se obavezao na izgradnju” (iz konteksta).

Štaviše, relevantna sudska praksa zauzima i stav da “ugovor sa podizvođačem može (se) zaključiti samo za pojedine faze gradnje, a ne za sve radove, što znači da je (NN lice) moralo imati licencu, kojom se utvrđuje ispunjenost uslova za obavljanje djelatnosti.”

U suprotnom, bila bi moguća situacija u kojoj kompanija registrovana za potpuno drugu delatnost zaključuje Ugovor u svojstvu izvođača, te daje u podizvođenje sve radove preuzete Ugovorom.

Nije preporučljivo izbegavanje građevinske dozvole subordiniranjem svih građevinskih radova. Samo Kompanije licencirane za obavljanje građevinskih radova mogu, u svojstvu izvođača, zaključiti Ugovor. Kompanije koje u svojstvu izvođača zaključe Ugovor mogu da daju u podizvođenje tek određene faze građevinskih radova, a ne sve građevinske radove.